PACT/PRKRA and p53 regulate transcriptional activity of DMRT1


Abstract The transcription factor DMRT1 (doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor) has two distinct functions, somatic-cell masculinization and germ-cell development in some vertebrate species, including mouse and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. However, its transcriptional regulation remains unclear. We tried to identify DMRT1-interacting proteins from X. laevis testes by immunoprecipitation with an anti-DMRT1 antibody and MS/MS analysis, and selected three proteins, including PACT/PRKRA (Interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase activator A) derived from testes. Next, we examined the effects of PACT/PRKRA and/or p53 on the transcriptional activity of DMRT1. In transfected 293T cells, PACT/PRKRA and p53 significantly enhanced and repressed DMRT1-driven luciferase activity, respectively. We also observed that the enhanced activity by PACT/PRKRA was strongly attenuated by p53. Moreover, in situ hybridization analysis of Pact/Prkra mRNA in tadpole gonads indicated high expression in female and male germline stem cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that PACT/PRKRA and p53 might positively and negatively regulate the activity of DMRT1, respectively, for germline stem cell fate.



p53, DMRT1, germline stem cell, testis, Xenopus