Reserva de Velocidade de Fluxo Coronariano durante o Ecocardiograma sob Estresse com Dobutamina

Resumo

Background: A coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) ≥ 2 is adequate to infer a favorable prognosis or the absence of significant coronary artery disease. Objective: To identify parameters which are relevant to obtain CFVR (adequate or inadequate) in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Methods: 100 patients referred for detection of myocardial ischemia by DSE were evaluated; they were instructed to discontinue the use of β-blockers 72 hours prior to the test. CFVR was calculated as a ratio of the diastolic peak velocity (cm/s) (DPV) on DSE (DPV-DSE) to baseline DPV at rest (DPV-Rest). In group I, CFVR was < 2 and, in group II, CFVR was ≥ 2. The Fisher's exact test and Student's t test were used for the statistical analyses. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At rest, the time (in seconds) to obtain Doppler in LAD in groups I and II was not different (53±31 vs. 45±32; p=0.23). During DSE, LAD was recorded in 92 patients. Group I patients were older (65.9±9.3 vs. 61.2±10.8 years; p=0.04), had lower ejection fraction (61±10 vs. 66±6%; p=0.005), higher DPV-Rest (36.81±08 vs. 25.63 ± 06cm/s; p<0.0001) and lower CFVR (1.67 ± 0.24 vs. 2.53 ± 0.57; p<0.0001), but no difference was observed regarding DPVDSE (61.40±16 vs. 64.23±16cm/s; p=0.42). β-blocker discontinuation was associated with a 4-fold higher chance of a CFVR < 2 (OR= 4; 95% CI [1.171-13.63], p=0.027). Conclusion: DPV-Rest was the main parameter to determine an adequate CFVR. β-blocker discontinuation was significantly associated with inadequate CFVR. The high feasibility and the time to record the LAD corroborate the use of this methodology. Fundamento: A reserva de velocidade de fluxo coronariano (RVFC) ≥ 2 é adequada para inferir bom prognóstico ou ausência de coronariopatia importante. Objetivo: Identificar parâmetros relevantes na obtenção da RVFC (adequada ou inadequada) na descendente anterior (ADA), durante o ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina (EED). Métodos: Avaliação de 100 pacientes encaminhados para pesquisa de isquemia miocárdica através do EED, orientados para suspender o betabloqueador 72 horas antes do exame. Calculou-se a RVFC pela divisão do pico de velocidade (cm/s) diastólica (PVD) verificado no EED (PVD-EED) pelo de repouso (PVD-REP). No grupo I, a RVFC < 2 e no grupo II a RVFC ≥ 2. Foram utilizados o teste t de Student e o exato de Fisher. Significância estatística quando p < 0,05. Resultados: Em repouso, o tempo (segundos) para obter o Doppler na ADA nos grupos I e II não diferiu (53 ± 31 vs. 45 ± 32; p = 0,23). No EED, registrou-se a ADA em 92 pacientes. O grupo I evidenciou pacientes mais velhos (65,9 ± 9,3 vs. 61,2 ± 10,8 anos; p = 0,04), menor fração de ejeção (61 ± 10 vs. 66 ± 6%; p = 0,005), maior PVD-REP (36,81 ± 08 vs. 25,63 ± 06 cm/s; p < 0,0001) e menor RVFC (1,67 ± 0,24 vs. 2,53 ± 0,57; p < 0,0001), entretanto o PVD-EED não diferiu (61,40 ± 16 vs. 64,23 ± 16 cm/s; p = 0,42). A suspensão do betabloqueador associou-se à chance 4 vezes maior de ocorrer RVFC < 2 (OR = 4; 95% IC [1,171 - 13,63], p = 0,027). Conclusão: O PVD-REP foi o principal parâmetro para determinar uma RVFC adequada. A suspensão do betabloqueador associou-se significativamente com RVFC inadequada. A elevada exequibilidade e o tempo para registro da ADA favorecem a utilização dessa metodologia.


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Assunto

Doenca da arteria coronariana, Ecocardiografia sob estresse / metodos, Reserva de velocidade de fluxo coronariano, Coronary artery disease, Echocardiography, stress / methods, Coronary flow velocity reserve

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