Carotenoid extraction using edible vegetable oil: an enriched provitamin A product


ABSTRACT: Vitamin A deficiency is the third most important micronutrient deficiency having a significant impact on public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a carotenoid extraction process with edible vegetable oils, using a central composite design which, concurrently, enriches the oils with provitamin A carotenoids. The stability of carotenoids in the oil and their shelf life was also evaluated. The process also aimed to meet the Recommended Daily Intake for vitamin A (600 μg retinol equivalent for an adult) with the enriched oil. The results showed that 20 % of the vegetable matrix (dried carrot) in vegetable oil and 5 min of extraction time was an optimum combination for both soy oil (64.43 μg retinol equivalent mL−1) and olive oil (62.98 μg retinol equivalent mL−1). Furthermore, the ingestion of just a spoonful (∼10 mL) of the enriched oils would meet the Recommended Daily Intake for vitamin A (600 μg retinol equivalent), and, thus, it was possible to affirm that a dose of vegetable oils enriched with provitamin A contributes to meeting the Recommended Daily Intake for vitamin A. The proposed process is based on simple and low-cost technology that can be used to enrich edible oils (soybean and olive oil) with provitamin A.



retinol, food-to-food fortification, oil shelf life, carotenoid stability, central composite design